State Variables & Communication Theory
Although state variable concepts are a part of modern control theory, they have not been extensively applied in communication theory. The purpose of this book is to demonstrate how the concepts and methods of state variables can be used advantageously in analyzing a variety of communication theory problems. In contrast to the impulse response and covariance function description of systems and random processes commonly used in the analysis of communication problems, Professor Baggeroer points out that a state variable approach describes these systems and processes in terms of differential equations and their excitation, which is usually a white-noise process. Theoretically, such a description provides a very general characterization on which a large class of systems, possibly time varying and nonlinear, can be modeled. Practically, the state variable approach often provides a more representative physical description of the actual dynamics of the systems involved and, most importantly, can lead to solution techniques that are readily implemented on a computer and that yield specific numerical results.
The work focuses on how state variables can be used to solve several of the integral equations that recur in communication theory including, for example, the Kahunen-Loeve theorem, the detection of a known signal in the presence of a colored noise, and the Wiener-Hopf equation. The book is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the development from first principles of the state variable solution techniques for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Fredholm integral solutions. The second part considers two specific applications of the author's integral equation theory: to optimal signal design for colored noise channels, and to linear estimation theory.
The main thrust of the material presented in this book is toward finding effective numerical procedures for analyzing complex problems. Professor Baggeroer has combined several different mathematical tools not commonly used together to attack the detection and signal design problems. Numerous examples are presented throughout the book to emphasize the numerical aspects of the author's methods. If the reader is familiar with detection and estimation theory and with deterministic state variable concepts, the ideas, techniques, and results contained in this work will prove highly relevant, if not directly applicable, to a large number of communication theory problems.
MIT Research Monograph No. 61
An examination of contemporary art's engagement with three modes of abstraction.
This anthology reconsiders crucial aspects of abstraction's resurgence in contemporary art, exploring three equally significant strategies explored in current practice: formal abstraction, economic abstraction, and social abstraction. In the 1960s, movements as diverse as Latin American neo-concretism, op art and "eccentric abstraction" disrupted the homogeneity, universality, and rationality associated with abstraction. These modes of abstraction opened up new forms of engagement with the phenomenal world as well as the possibility of diverse readings of the same forms, ranging from formalist and transcendental to socio-economic and conceptual.
In the 1980s, the writings of Peter Halley, Fredric Jameson, and others considered an increasingly abstracted world in terms of its economic, social, and political conditions--all of which were increasingly manifested through abstract codes or sites of style. Such economic abstraction is primarily addressed in art through subject or theme, but Deleuze and Guattari's notion of art as abstract machine opens up possibilities for art's role in the construction of a new kind of social reality. In more recent art, a third strand of abstraction emerges: a form of social abstraction centered on the strategy of withdrawal. Social abstraction implies stepping aside, a movement away from the mainstream, suggesting the possibilities for art to maneuver within self-organized, withdrawn initiatives in the field of cultural production.
Artists surveyed include:
Lee Bontecou, Louise Bourgeois, Amilcar de Castro, Paul Cezanne, Lygia Clark, Kajsa Dahlberg, Stephan Dillemuth, Marcel Duchamp, Gardar Eide Einarsson, Gunther Forg, Liam Gillick, Ferreira Gullar, Jean Helion, Eva Hesse, Jakob Jakobsen, Jasper Johns, Donald Judd, Wassily Kandinsky, Sol LeWitt, Piet Mondrian, Bruce Nauman, Helio Oiticica, Blinky Palermo, Lygia Pape, Mai-Thu Perret, Jackson Pollock, Tobias Rehberger, Bridget Riley, Emily Roysden, Lucas Samaras, Julian Stanczak, Frank Stella, Hito Steyerl, Theo van Doesburg
Hands on the Land - A History of the Vermont Landscape
Alfred H. Barr Jr., Ina Blom, Lynne Cooke, Anthony Davies, Judi Freeman, Peter Halley, Brian Holmes, Joe Houston, Fredric Jameson, Lucy R. Lippard, Sven Lutticken, Nina Montmann, Gabriel Perez-Barreiro, Catherine Queloz, Gerald Raunig, Irit Rogoff, Meyer Schapiro, Kirk Varnedoe, Stephan Zepke
A lavishly illustrated study of the natural and cultural history of the Vermont landscape.
In this book Jan Albers examines the history--natural, environmental, social, and ultimately human--of one of America's most cherished landscapes: Vermont. Albers shows how Vermont has come to stand for the ideal of unspoiled rural community, examining both the basis of the state's pastoral image and the equally real toll taken by the pressure of human hands on the land. She begins with the relatively light touch of Vermont's Native Americans, then shows how European settlers--armed with a conviction that their claim to the land was a God-given right--shaped the landscape both to meet economic needs and to satisfy philosophical beliefs. The often turbulent result: a conflict between practical requirements and romantic ideals that has persisted to this day. Making lively use of contemporary accounts, advertisements, maps, landscape paintings, and vintage photographs, Albers delves into the stories and personalities behind the development of a succession of Vermont landscapes. She observes the growth of communities from tiny settlements to picturesque villages to bustling cities; traces the development of agriculture, forestry, mining, industry, and the influence of burgeoning technology; and proceeds to the growth of environmental consciousness, aided by both private initiative and governmental regulation. She reveals how as community strengthens, so does responsible stewardship of the land. Albers shows that like any landscape, the Vermont landscape reflects the human decisions that have been made about it--and that the more a community understands about how such decisions have been made, the better will be its future decisions.